We relate regional differences of diabetes in Europe to socio-economic, health and lifestyle variables. The adjusted odds of diabetes incidence is two-fold higher in Eastern and Southern Europe than in the West. Regional differences are strongly heterogenous across the risk factors. Diabetes prevention should be emphasised among high-risk individuals in the East and South. Abstract We examine regional differences in diabetes within Europe, and relate them to variations in socio-economic conditions, comorbidities, health behaviour and diabetes management.
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Full size table Experimental design A To investigate the effect of DDW on metabolic changes occur in diabetes, diabetic and control rats were divided into two main groups: half of the animals were given DDW 25 ppm Dand the other half received normal tap water ppm Dboth provided ad libitum. To determine whether DDW exerts its effects, at least partially, by modifying the action of insulin, diabetic rats were further divided into subgroups according to insulin treatment. The control rats did not receive insulin treatment.
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